Dry eye is the most common ocular process and may affect up to 68% of people. It is a multifactorial disease with many factors that can trigger and aggravate the process. There are many new concepts which try to explain what happens in each case, which makes it difficult to diagnose and thus to get their treatment.
We have noticed that the diagnostic methods have changed and it is necessary to incorporate new technologies for a better understanding of what happens in each patient and establish the treatment strategy that will be specific in each case and according to the evolution stage, questioning the protocols used so far.
The treatment will really focus on eliminating the causes of the disease and especially, discomfort and anxiety felt by the patient and to control the pathophysiological changes that occur in the tissues of the complex lacrimal system – ocular surface. Some important news in the treatment of dry eye are referred to the role of the meibomian glands, the eyelid margin, blink mechanism, tear film and the state of the tissues (cornea and conjunctiva) and very especially, the level of tear osmolarity and the inflammatory tissue reaction, undervalued so far and fundamental to improve and solve dry eye.
We think that a change of mind about the dry eye is necessary, not only by the patient but also by the doctors. It is necessary for the patient to know that there are new methods that can help and improve symptoms and signs and, the ophthalmologist must know that there is a new approach in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients, especially when it makes reference to the psychological sphere. There are new proposals on meibomian gland and anti-inflammatory approach. We are confident that this new perspective will let both the patient with dry eye and the doctor have a happier life.